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wls, wl, wll, wlsf, wlsr, wlsx - list contents of snapshot


wls [-*1CdEfFIKKKKKlLLmMOprRtuUvVwxXX] [-jpatternList] [-o/Path] [-Wuser[,...]] [-NWorkspaceName] [-hHost -SSnapshot [-DDir]] [name ...]
wl [ wls options ] [ name ... ]
wll [ wls options ] [ name ... ]
wlsf [ wls options ] [ name ... ]
wlsr [ wls options ] [ name ... ]
wlsx [ wls options ] [ name ... ]


For each directory argument, wls lists the contents of the directory; for each file argument, wls prints its name and any other information requested. When no argument is given, the current directory is listed. The output will be sorted alphabetically, unless overridden by an option.

There are three major listing formats. The format chosen depends on the option flags. The default format is to list the contents of directories in multi-column format, with the entries sorted down the columns. The -1 (one) option specifies single column format, the -x option specifies multi-column format, with the entries sorted across the page, and the -m option specifies stream output format in which files are listed across the page, separated by commas. In order to determine formatting for the multi-column formats, wls uses an environment variable, COLUMNS, to determine the number of character positions available on one output line. If this variable is not set, the terminfo database is used to determine the number of columns, based on the environment variable TERM. If this information cannot be obtained, 80 columns is assumed.

Default Options

Default options can be set on most workspace commands. See wco(1) for details.

Workspace Options

The workspace mapping is automatically looked up in the user's workspace mapping table for the given names. Override this by specifying an explicit workspace:
Use the named workspace mapping.

Or override with a temporary workspace mapping with these three options:

Use the SnapshotCM server on Host for a workspace mapping.
Use SnapshotPath for a workspace mapping.
The local destination directory for a workspace mapping. This can be a relative or absolute path. If this option is not provided with the other two, the local destination directory defaults to the current directory where the command is executed.

For more information on workspace mappings, see wmap(1) .


Ignore the workspace ignore filter and display all files and directories. Equivalent to -j'*|*/'.
-1 (one)
The file names will be listed in single column format.
Multi-column output with entries sorted down the columns. (default)
If an argument is a directory, list only its name (not its contents); often used with -l to get the status of a directory. Combine with -R to list all directories in a hierarchy, but not any files.
Filter output to show only snapshot files also existing in the workspace.
Print information as it is found. Output is unsorted, single column format. This is useful in shell pipelines as it speeds down stream processing. Otherwise all information must be gathered before anything can be printed.
Put a slash (/) after each file name if that file is a directory, put an asterisk (*) after each file name if that file is executable, and put an exclamation point (!) after each file which is locked. If a file is both executable and locked, the exclamation point will appear after the asterisk.
List only local files which have been modified since they were checked out. Typically, these are files awaiting check in. Combine with -L to only show locked and modified files. Combine with -K to show files which are candidates for import.
List only files whose name (or path) matches patternList. PatternList consists of one or more patterns separated by a '|' (pipe/or) symbol. Each pattern can contain shell wild cards as follows:

* - match 0 or more characters
? - match any one character
[set] - match any character in set
[!set] - match any character not in set

A pattern not ending in a slash ('/') matches only files. A pattern ending in a slash matches only directories. A pattern containing a slash other than at the end is matched against the full workspace path. Otherwise pattern is matched against the last component of the path. If patternList begins with an '!' (exclamation/bang) character, the normal selection is negated.

Merge workspace files (and directories) into the normal listing. Normally, only snapshot files are displayed.
List only workspace files. Ignore snapshot files for which no local file exists.
List workspace files which do not exist in the snapshot. These are candidate files for import.
List snapshot files which do not exist in the workspace.
List files which exist in both the workspace and the snapshot. Ignore files which exist only in the workspace or only in the snapshot. Equivalent to -E option.
List files which exist only in the workspace or only in the snapshot. Ignore files which exist in both the workspace and the snapshot.
List in long format, giving modes, locks, size of the revision in bytes, and time of last modification for each file. The first letter of the mode indicates the storage type of the file (- for files, d for directories). For files, columns 2 and 3 indicate I/O and keyword expansion modes.
List only locked files. Combine with -I to only show locked and modified files. If long format is specified with -L, the time shown will be the lock time rather than the modification time.
Same a -L except lists only files locked in the local workspace.
Stream output format.
Print workspace mapping before normal output.
Map /Path in the selected snapshot to the specified (-D) local directory, creating a temporary, partial workspace mapping for the command. Normally, the root directory of a snapshot is what is mapped.
Put a slash (/) after each file name if that file is a directory.
Reverse the sort order. This results in reverse alphabetic, or, with the -t option, the oldest first.
Recursively list subdirectories encountered.
Sort by time modified (latest first) instead of by name.
Also list files and directories that can be recovered (undeleted) (see wset(1) -U).
Only list files and directories that can be recovered.
List mode and time in a numeric format. Mode is listed as an octal number and time as a decimal number.
Show individual item revisions.
Print the internal version and exit.
Only list files locked by the calling user.
Only list files locked by any of the comma separated list of users.
Multi-column output with entries sorted across rather than down the page.
List names in expanded form.
Prefix expanded form names with the full snapshot path. The snapshot and file paths are separated by a double slash.

wls normally is known by several names which provide shorthands for the various formats:

wl is equivalent to wls -m.
wll is equivalent to wls -l.
wlsf is equivalent to wls -F.
wlsr is equivalent to wls -Rf.
wlsx is equivalent to wls -x.

The shorthand notations are implemented as links to wls on platforms supporting links. Option arguments to the shorthand versions behave exactly as if the long form above had been used with the additional arguments given first.

Workspace Mapping

wls uses a mapping to determine the workspace and snapshot upon which to operate.

An explicit mapping can be specified with the -N option or with the -S, -h and -D options together. If no explicit mapping is specified, the user's mapping table is searched for a workspace containing name. See WORKSPACE MAPPING in wco(1) for details.


Exit status is 0 if there were no errors, 1 if one or more files do not exist, and 2 if there was a bad option or network problem. Error messages will be printed to stderr, normal output will go to stdout.


The following command prints a long listing of all the files in the current directory. The file most recently modified (the youngest) is listed first, then the next youngest file, and so forth, to the oldest.

wls -lt

To list the absolute path of the current archive directory, enter

wls -dX

To list all the locked files in the current workspace in long form, enter

wll -LLR /

To list all *.vcproj files in the hierarchy, run:

wls -R -j*.vcproj

To list all files in a workspace, except for those in Release and Debug directories, run:

wls -R -KK -j'!Release/|Debug/'

To list the /src directory of a specific snapshot, run:

wls -h host -S /project/.../snapshot /src

Here is a shell script fragment to check if a file is locked:

if [ "`wls -L ${file} 2>/dev/null`" = "${file}" ]; then
echo ${file} is locked.



wls does not change its output format based on output device. This differs from the ls( 1) command. Use wls -1 (one) to obtain single column output.

Unprintable characters in file names may confuse the columnar output options.

See Also

ls( 1), wci(1) , wco(1) , wdiff(1) , whist(1) , wmap(1) , wmerge(1) , wremove(1) , wrename(1) , wset(1) , wupdate(1) .

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